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Types from Extraction

TypeScript’s type system is very powerful because it allows expressing types in terms of other types. Although the simplest form of this is generics, we actually have a wide variety of type operators available to us. It’s also possible to express types in terms of values that we already have.

By combining various type operators, we can express complex operations and values in a succinct, maintainable way. In this chapter we’ll cover ways to express a type in terms of an existing type or value.

The typeof type operator

JavaScript already has a typeof operator you can use in an expression context:

// Prints "string" console.log(typeof "Hello world");Try

TypeScript adds a typeof operator you can use in a type context to refer to the type of a variable or property:

let s = "hello"; let n: typeof s; // ^ = let n: stringTry

This isn’t very useful for basic types, but combined with other type operators, you can use typeof to conveniently express many patterns. For an example, let’s start by looking at the predefined type ReturnType<T>. It takes a function type and produces its return type:

type Predicate = (x: unknown) => boolean; type K = ReturnType<Predicate>; // ^ = type K = booleanTry

If we try to use ReturnType on a function name, we see an instructive error:

function f() { return { x: 10, y: 3 }; } type P = ReturnType<f>; 'f' refers to a value, but is being used as a type here. Did you mean 'typeof f'?2749'f' refers to a value, but is being used as a type here. Did you mean 'typeof f'?Try

Remember that values and types aren’t the same thing. To refer to the type that the value f has, we use typeof:

function f() { return { x: 10, y: 3 }; } type P = ReturnType<typeof f>; // ^ = type P = { x: number; y: number; }Try

Limitations

TypeScript intentionally limits the sorts of expressions you can use typeof on. Specifically, it’s only legal to use typeof on identifiers (i.e. variable names) or their properties. This helps avoid the confusing trap of writing code you think is executing, but isn’t:

// Meant to use = let x : msgbox("Are you sure you want to continue?"); ',' expected.1005',' expected.Try

The keyof type operator

The keyof operator takes an object type and produces a string or numeric literal union of its keys:

type Point = { x: number; y: number }; type P = keyof Point; // ^ = type P = "x" | "y"Try

If the type has a string or number index signature, keyof will return those types instead:

type Arrayish = { [n: number]: unknown }; type A = keyof Arrayish; // ^ = type A = number type Mapish = { [k: string]: boolean }; type M = keyof Mapish; // ^ = type M = string | numberTry

Note that in this example, M is string | number — this is because JavaScript object keys are always coerced to a string, so obj[0] is always the same as obj["0"].

keyof types become especially useful when combined with mapped types, which we’ll learn more about later.

Indexed Access Types

We can use typeof to reference the type of a property of a value. What if we want to reference the type of a property of a type instead?

We can use an indexed access type to look up a specific property on another type:

type Person = { age: number; name: string; alive: boolean }; type A = Person["age"]; // ^ = type A = numberTry

The indexing type is itself a type, so we can use unions, keyof, or other types entirely:

type I1 = Person["age" | "name"]; // ^ = type I1 = string | number type I2 = Person[keyof Person]; // ^ = type I2 = string | number | boolean type AliveOrName = "alive" | "name"; type I3 = Person[AliveOrName]; // ^ = type I3 = string | booleanTry

You’ll even see an error if you try to index a property that doesn’t exist:

type I1 = Person["alve"]; Property 'alve' does not exist on type 'Person'.2339Property 'alve' does not exist on type 'Person'.Try

Another example of indexing with an arbitrary type is using number to get the type of an array’s elements. We can combine this with typeof to conveniently capture the element type of an array literal:

const MyArray = [ { name: "Alice", age: 15 }, { name: "Bob", age: 23 }, { name: "Eve", age: 38 }, ]; type T = typeof MyArray[number]; // ^ = type T = { name: string; age: number; }Try

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Last updated: Sep 23, 2020